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2′-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL)

2′-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL) is the most abundant HMO in breast milk.



Health benefits

Research suggests that 2’-FL may have specific functional benefits, including an ability to favor intestinal integrity1 and healthy bacteria2 and benefits on cognition and memory3.  In addition, it may help support a positive immune response4.  It has also been scientifically studied to support the development of the normal immune and digestive systems in preterm infants5 

Studies on our 2’-FL HMO

Due to the very high concentration of 2′-Fucosyllactose in human breast milk, it was possible very early on in scientific research to show that this specific sugar can reduce potentially harmful gut bacteria6 and alleviate challenges with e.g. occasional loose stool7 and respiratory discomfort.8


1 Natividad, J. M., Rytz, A., Keddani, S., Bergonzelli, G., & Garcia-Rodenas, C. L. (2020). Blends of Human Milk Oligosaccharides Confer Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Protection In Vitro. Nutrients, 12(10), 3047.
2 Gotho et al., 2018, Kostopoulus et al., 2020.
3 Berger, Paige K., et al. "Human milk oligosaccharide 2’-fucosyllactose links feedings at 1 month to cognitive development at 24 months in infants of normal and overweight mothers." PloS one 15.2 (2020): e0228323.
4 Goehring, Karen C., et al. "Similar to those who are breastfed, infants fed a formula containing 2′-fucosyllactose have lower inflammatory cytokines in a randomized controlled trial." The Journal of nutrition 146.12. (2016): 2559-2566.
5 Good, Misty, et al. "The human milk oligosaccharide 2′-fucosyllactose attenuates the severity of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis by enhancing mesenteric perfusion in the neonatal intestine." British journal of nutrition 116.7 (2016): 1175-1187.
6 Weichert, Stefan, et al. "Bioengineered 2′-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose inhibit the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteric pathogens to human intestinal and respiratory cell lines." Nutrition research 33.10 (2013): 831-838.
7 Palsson, Olafur S., et al. "Human Milk Oligosaccharides Support Normal Bowel Function and Improve Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial." Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology 11.12 (2020).
8 Puccio, Giuseppe, et al. "Effects of infant formula with human milk oligosaccharides on growth and morbidity: a randomized multicenter trial." Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 64.4 (2017): 624.